Basics of Physical Examination by Dr Zahid Afzal
Hi I am Dr Zahid Afzal from General veterinary hospital Lahore; Today I want to discuss a new topic which name is basics of physical examination. A video about this topic is already uploaded on YouTube channel so those who want a visual lecture they can watch that video. So my topic is about that, what are the most important things which we need to observe…?For which we need to make sure before doing any physical examination of any cat and dog and other animals. So there are a few basic things which we need to know before starting a complete checkup of animal. These basic things include but not limited to temperature for fever, respiration rate, pulse rate, skin softness or hardness and oral mucosa. So please make sure that you are keeping in focus these four points.
So let’s get to our first point which is temperature, so whenever we will take the temperature it’s very important for us that to check the fever of that animal, which came to our clinic for an examination. If the temperature is higher than we call that animal is hyperthermia, and when the temperature is lower than the normal range then we call it hypothermic. So after taking the exact temperature we can decide the exact treatment plan for that animal, and if we ignore this point then maybe are treatment plan will not work on that animal for that specific disease. So basically when there is hyperthermia, then you will use non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce the temperature and if the temperature is too much high that for example in dogs if it is more than 105 Fahrenheit, then you need to firstly lower down the temperature to 103 or 104 to make sure that you are injections will not react on that animal. So similarly if the animal is hypothermic then you will use the multivitamins to boost up the body temperature, and advise the owner that after going into the home they make sure to cover up the animal, so that animal body could get warmer environment and that will make his body temperature to normalized condition.
Now come to the next point which is respiration rate, so respiration rate is the speed of respiration and by this we can assess, we can analyze that which type of treatment plan will work on that specific animal. In a normal average, whenever the patient is hyperthermia the respiration rate is automatically increased, and whenever the temperature is low or the animal is hypothermic then the respiration rate will be low. So the next step is pulse rate similar is the case with pulse rate, this pulse rate is also associated with the hyperthermia and hypothermic condition.
Now the next and the most important part of physical examination is to check any type of skin hardness and skin softness. If the skin is hard and it stays more than 15 seconds when you punch it then this means that animal is dehydrated, for which you must add any hydrant to the treatment plan, so animal get hydrated. In my opinion fluid therapy is not the only option to make animal hydrated, and if the skin is soft and come to its original position after punching within 2 seconds, then this means that animal is fully hydrated and we don’t need to tackle up his hydration procedure.
Now the next step is that we have to check, whether the animal is anemic or non anemic, for this we will check the eye mucosa and the oral mucosa, if the color is white then this means that animal is anemic. And if the color is pink or red then its mean that animal have normal blood level. So we can suggest the treatment along with the other disease condition to make sure that animal remains healthy.
Now the next step is that in any case we have to check the animal walking if animal is walking normally, then this means that animal is normal and if he is pulling up his legs or making some pressure on paws, then this mean that this animal must have a pain or something like muscular pain in legs.
Now the last but not the least parameter of physical examination is to palpate animal’s abdomen by this you can easily analyze or can say that the animal is having any type of stomach pain or not, or either you can also check that animal is constipated or not. Checking all these parameters now we can make an exact treatment plan depending on the history provided by the owner, and depending on the conditions we have seen by the physical examination, and diagnose we have made and the diagnose which came in our mind at first instance, that this animal require specified either antibiotics or other symptomatic drugs.
I hope this topic and this article will enhance your knowledge about the basics of physical examination, and you can evaluate as per as your experience. And if there is any question related to this article you can WhatsApp me, and you can also comment in the below section and you can also join my multiple online platforms like Instagram, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and you can contact me anytime anywhere online. I will be there for you thanks for visiting my website keep me updated with your precious comments and reviews. There are also few people who are basically my colleagues are not interested in my articles and videos so there is request to them if my articles are not up to the mark or up to your satisfaction than there is no obligation on you to watch my videos and read my articles. You can also write them if you want to and you can also make videos of your own. There is no objection on you from any side. Here I also wanted to invite all the Vets to write articles for this blog so we can publish them for other vets.
Leg pulling in Veterinary Clinical Practice of Pakistan;
Hy..! This is Dr Zahid Afzal from General veterinary hospital Lahore. Today I just want to discuss a single line topic that how we the Vets of Pakistan are doing leg pulling and how this strategy is ruining the veterinary practice in Pakistan. Now a days it’s became a common policy of every Vet that he/she had to degrade the vet by showing irrelevant skills which may he don’t possess. I’m not here to blame a single vet or group of vets but I’m here to discuss with all of you that what should be our policy and by this single policy how we can boost up our business and practice. Commonly there are many quacks in different areas of Pakistan, in quacks I’m not talking about the Veterinary Assistants. I’m talking about the quacks who didn’t possess any type of technical and professional degree/diploma but still they are in practice and also ruining other’s practice.
Now come to the major leg pulling which we are commonly faced in our daily routine field practice. Following are the some examples:
- A client came at one vet clinic and that vet tried his best to save the animal and his patient’s life but didn’t get succeed in it, so the owner goes to the other vet’s clinic to again start a treatment. Now come to the other vet when patient arrived at his clinic he firstly asked where the previous medication history…is So owner provides them with complete history of patient from last Vet. Now the second vet will say only one word that previous vet haven’t provided enough good medication and some wrong medication so that’s why your pet is in severe condition.
- Propagating against some emerging vet on social media and other platforms.
- Complaining and online reviews by which reputation of clinic getting worse than anything.
I mean above are few examples, how someone can be so rude and ridiculed in this regard. Do you think that you are the only vet in this planet which is having knowledge about everything of the field..?No you are not. Anyhow now come to the solution of this problem.
- Let’s become a chain, a single chain of vets.
- Only focus on your patients that what you want to treat and how you will treat let’s forget about the other vet. He tried himself you try yourself May God gave the speechless a new life.
- Never lose hope
I’m not blaming any one or neither I have any sole mission, I just wanted to keep safe every vet and once this norm developed in upcoming vets than this would b ea harsh factor which may affect every vet’s life. I hope no one will mind and keep focus on suggestions which I gave. I will be waiting for your precious comments and suggestions. Let’s make a unique platform and allow everyone to live his own life. Stay blessed and remember me in your prayers. Regards
Wound management and its practices in cats and dogs and other animals
Hi, this is Dr Zahid Afzal from General veterinary hospital Lahore .Today I want to discuss about the wound management and its treatment and the correct technique to deal with this type of cases. On this article, I already uploaded my video on my YouTube channel General veterinary hospital; you can see the video by clicking here. So first of all, I would like to tell you that how many types of wounds are present and how we can differentiate them according to their nature.
So number one is simple wound, simple wounds are those wounds which are just trauma, just are rupture of skin and which are not complex or complicated by any type of other wound or injury. So simple type of wound can be treated very well and easily, by using above mentioned techs.
Second type of wounds are complex wounds, so the complex wound are those ones which are multiple of simple wounds, so they need some special and specified treatment.
And the third type of wounds is infectious wounds i.e. there are some discharges of blood, pus and a very bad smell coming out of the wound. So now the question is, that how we will treat these wounds and how we can be able to manage these wounds that owner of the animal and the vet, both get satisfied. So these are the simple things most of you knew about this, but I will explain some new techniques by which you can easily heal up the wound and its types.
So let’s start from the treatment of simple one for the simple wound you need nothing to worry about it just wash the wound with normal saline and remove the bloodshed from it and apply some iodine on that wound, after that if the wound is deeper than you can use cream mycitracin, and if the wound is somehow simple that is on the skin then you can use cream Provate G.
Then come to the next option of the wound, which is complex wound and complicated wound. So in this case you firstly need to know that either the wound is fresh or either the wound is mature or chronic. So if any case it’s complex then you can simply wash the wound with iodine and then apply the cream mycitracin on it and that site if the point is suitable then you can use the bandage also on it. But if you cannot use the bandage then keep the wound open so that external oxygen can maintain the cellular level and its productivity and regeneration power. If the wound is mature and chronic then you have to use the debridement procedure. Now I would like to explain that what is the debridement procedure, the debridement procedure is freshening of the wound and removing of the old and dead blood cells. If you remove the old and dead cells then the new cells came out of the skin, will automatically start reproducing the other cells and by this the wound will heal up within few days instead of taking long time. If the wound is complicated, you need to do the freshening of wound by any type of forceps or any manual method, after this wash the wound with normal saline and wash it with iodine solution and Oxyferin solution, after applying the few drops of this lotion you can put the cream mycitracin on that wound. This is an important thing which we have to remember, that we must have to use any type of antibiotic which is preferably antibiotic Augmentin or amoxicillin, which will prevent any type of infection and which will be stop the proliferation of any bacterial infection.
So now let’s come to the last type of the wound, which is infectious type of wound. In the infectious type of wounds, firstly you have to clean the wound with manual procedures like washing with normal saline and by using the forceps. When you have removed all the dead cells and the discharges from that wound, then after that you will wash the wound with normal saline then filled in cream mycitracin, then you can also apply that lotion oxyferin. Don’t ever use the bandage on the infectious wound, because it can damage or degenerate the surrounding skin of that wound. So the basic thing is that we have to clear up our mind that we are dealing with very normal condition but if we don’t take care of this then this could be more severe and more acute, you can also use injection gentamicin as a parental antibiotic and inject in the muscles to boost up the antibiotic effect in the infectious wound. This will recover the animals in 3 days instead of 5 or 7 days. The wound healing power will be more efficient when you are using the double antibiotic.
Now the most important thing is that you must have some specified diet plan of that animal which is most preferably the beef mince meat which help to recover the wound, with more faster procedure. So if you are using any type of dry food you can stop it for some time and you can use the beef mince meat for few days. If its summer season then I will recommend you that avoid using the beef mince meat and if its winter season then you can use it, whatever the quantity your dog is taking. Here one of the most important questions which arise in our mind that what if maggots got infected the wound…? Then don’t need to worry about that, I already wrote up an article on this topic also few days back you can read it by clicking here. As maggot wounds are somehow different from normal trauma and other wounds so it required a different type of treatment. I hope this article will help you in boosting up your skill in veterinary field practices. Always remember me in your prayers and don’t forget to use appetite 100 syrup, in your field practice, it’s very natural product produced by me. I will be waiting for your precious comments and feedback. Stay blessed..!
Ingestion of Unwanted objects by Pets:
Well it’s a very difficult state to explain the exact treatment of this issue, as we know that the object may cause severe damages to entire Gastro intestinal tract. So firstly we need to know about the different conditions which can occur when your dog or cat ingest any object which is unwanted or should not be ingested. Following could be the conditions:
- Dog/Cat may feel the issue of difficulty breathing, and this could be the worst form of this problem. In this form you may need to reach the Vet as soon as possible, because it could be more damaging.
- Dog/Cat if ingested or chew something electric cord like structure which can be in shocked form than you firstly need to remove the main switch and after that rub the body of dog/cat with any wooden object, it will reduce the electric potential.
- Medicinal form of ingestion is that form when your pet ingest any medicine which he shouldn’t take and in a overdose. In this form you may need to boost up the hydration of pet as soon as possible as it will help the withdraw of that unwanted medicine.
Note: These instructions are just for informative purpose, for serious conditions you may need to visit the nearest vet as soon as possible.
Say No to Online Consultation for Pet’s Health:
Hy..This is Dr Zahid Afzal from General Veterinary Hospital Lahore, today I want to discuss with you a very important topic which could lead to even death of our pet. The topic is getting online consultation about your pets. Do you think is it ok for you to take an online advice from any person about ongoing health issue of your pet…? No..? Yes..? Let me give you an example, suppose you got diabetes from last two years, now suddenly one day you got an severe attack sue to high blood pressure and now you are unable to visit any hospital or clinic or any doctor. Suppose in this situation you called your friend who is also diabetic from last 15 years, and he/she advice you to take a random Pill ABC. As soon as you took that pill, you fell down and got unconscious. Now what would be the reason of this according to you..? Let me tell the exact reason, there are many medications that impact on body depending on drug adoption system of that body. Sometime our body doesn’t accept those medications which recovered 100s of people already in same condition. So drug adoption is the phenomenon that occurs in each and every body of living organisms.
Consultation OR Advice from Experienced Persons:
Similarly is the case with pets, you can’t take advice from anyone who is experienced in keeping pets from last 10 or 15 years, because may be the solution he/she is telling is effective for his/her animals or pets but could be deadly for your pet or animal. Every pet specially cats and dogs have different types of immune systems and their upgradtions are also different. So by taking a random advice from an experienced person could be lethal to your Pets. What we usually do on online platforms..? I would like to explain it step by step:
- Face book posts, where we asked about recommendations from so called experienced persons.
- Twitter tweets asking for online help.
- Quora Questions and seeking answers for it.
- Instagram stories about health issues and their remedies.
- And a lot of videos on YouTube.
So by taking above steps we seek help from so called experience persons and most of the cases when we applied these methods, medications and tips on our pet than our pet got expired or even get worse. So my question here is that now to whom you will blame..? Experienced person..?Vet …? Or yourself..?
Your pet may not be your whole life but you could be his/her complete life. Just think on it that you have only person in your life who is taking responsibility of you, who is feeding you, who listen you and who love to you. Suddenly this one person starts some sort of experiments on you, so what will be your reaction. Here one thing which is more important is that you can’t even speak against that person’s action. What will be your answer..? I hope I will get a big NO answer in this regard. Now place your pet at that place which I mentioned above, this is the pain what your pet feels.
Consultations from Vet online:
Now here comes at another point that you stop taking opinions from random persons but start taking tips from a registered vet. Now here I would like to ask you that if your kid has a fever what you would do… Would you like to visit a doctor or would you call a doctor saying that I can’t come up at the clinic please advise me some medications (whatever the reason for not going to Vet’s clinic is)..?I hope NO, you will take your kid to the hospital or clinic as soon as possible. So why we show this type of behavior for pets only, why we don’t take them to vets, why we were remaining waiting for a miracle…? It’s the important issue these days that about 80% of pet owners prefer to take online advice instead of visiting the vet clinics. As far as my experience concerns below are the reasons for not visiting the Vet clinic.
- Having guests at home
- Having no one to drive a car
- No money or worried about bills
- Sick by himself or herself
- Having no time due to office and other routines
According to me these all are lame excuses, and get rid of these excuses is actual humanity which we need these days badly. I have personally witnessed many pet owners who reached me when their pet is near to death almost, even they bring dead bodies to my clinic, upon asking the reason they that from last two days he/she had this ABC problem but we were unable to visit any vet before. So at that time I just say usually one thing that why you bring now..? Actually being a human being its embarrassment for all of us, that one poor speechless soul left us without giving his/her reaction.
I won’t ask you to pay heavy bills of any pet clinic, just find some economical vet in your area and be in contact with him/her throughout the week. Whenever your pet got any symptoms, just call the Vet and ask him what to do..? If he say bring the patient at clinic than go for that, don’t force the vet to prescribe you on the phone. How a Vet can examine the following thing on phone call
- Temperature of Patient
- Respiration rate of patient
- Pulse rate of Patient
- Mucosa of patient
- Skin position of pet
- Abdominal alterations of patient
- CRT/ECG/Xrays/ Ultrasonography
And there are many things. So lastly I would like to request that please avoid using home remedies for your pets and avoid taking online suggestions. I hope my article could change the thinking of many pet owners which is not only beneficial for pet owner but also its beneficial for the pet also. Keep me remember me in your prayers. Stay blessed
A German shepherd dog named Rex, age 4 years almost and sex is male. Rex is owned by Mr. Naveed Shahbaz of DHA Lahore. Mr. Naveed was out to US for a two weeks visit for business purpose, he was there and returned back after completion of his visit to Pakistan. When he came back he met with Rex, and surprisingly Rex’s behavior was out of routine and he was growling on Mr Naveed. It was the first time from last 4 years that Rex growled on Mr Naveed. Mr Naveed got worried and as soon as he turned, suddenly Rex attacked on him and bites him on his hands, though it was really a painful act by Rex. Later on servants of Mr Naveed came and rescue him from Rex and then tie the Rex to his kennel. Even though after getting closed in kennel the Rex was still growling on Mr Naveed, here one thing was important to note that Rex wasn’t attacking and growling on other persons present in the house. So Mr Naveed was taken to the hospital urgently where he got ATS and Rabies injections. After treatment of almost 5 days when he came back to home Rex was again start growling on him. It was very surprisingly revealed that Rex haven’t growled and attacked anyone during his absence. Again he tried to get closer to Rex but again Rex tried to attack him but fortunately Mr Naveed got saved from second attack. After the second they contact Dr Zahid Afzal and told him about the problem of his dog which was changing with him with passage of time. Dr Zahid Afzal reached at their house and observed Rex thoroughly, upon checkup Dr Zahid revealed that Rex is in a severe stressed condition and he needs some extra and special care. So after examining and taking history he told the owner that Rex was too attached to him and he suddenly got a plan to US, which makes Rex angrier and after that a servant was serving the Rex with food and other items. But definitely a servant can’t make attachment just like the actual owner of dog, so this makes Rex more restless and he pull out his anger on Mr Naveed when he came back home.
Treatment Plan Suggested:
Treatment plan suggested was not medication it was just a psychological treatment, which includes petting of Rex by Naveed as much as he can. He should try to give food to Rex by his own hands and not let the servants to feed Rex. Along with this Rex also need a special training from a dog trainer to cover up his mental state. After 2 weeks of this routine General Veterinary Hospital Lahore again contacted Mr Naveed to take follow back and was really great and good. Rex was now completely recovered and stabilized with Mr Naveed.
The important thing was here that Mr Naveed was a anxiety patient along with hypertension, so he easily got fear of Rex when he attacked first time. This was so bad for Rex that his owner fears from him and also his owner left him alone for two weeks. So finally he attacked. But after Mr Naveed cover up his anxiety and fear, Rex also got relaxed. So remember medical treatment is not the only solution in all cases sometimes behavioral treatments can also provide relief.
Article by Dr Zahid Afzal DVM: Increase Milk Production in Dairy Animals
Hy..! This is Dr Zahid Afzal today I would like to discuss a very frequent asking question about increase in milk production by both of Vets and the farmers. So I want to clear that increasing milk production is not a rocket science, you don’t need to be highly experienced, qualified and a lot of expensive techs required here. Just by following simple steps you will be able to increase the milk production but along with this you can also maintain the boosted immune system of that animal. Increasing milk production is high demanding specially in Central Asia due to increasing consumption of milk. Here we need to look out at few steps or reasons firstly, that how these factors help in decreasing the milk production. Following are the reasons:
Stress is basically a first reason for any animal to reduce her production even in gap of 24 hours. This stress may be clinical generated, environmental generated and food generated. So basically there is a need to determine the exact cause of stress by asking from the owner, and if you are the owner than you need to notice about any recent changes in clinical management, environmental changes and feed changes. If any of these happens than you can easily tackle up the issue and stop animal from reducing the further milk production.
- Worms and Parasitic:
Worms and some of parasites which could be in blood, and could be present externally may cause the reduction of milk. By making a proper physical exam of animal i.e. by checking his eyes, stool and urination one can easily detect the presence of internal worms in that specific animal.
- Minerals, Vitamins and Glucose Deficiency:
The third most important thing in this regard is minerals, vitamins and glucose deficiency. In this regard as we all knew that milk production is highly depend on these factors and ingredients. When we see the composition of milk we will found these ingredients as a major composition source of milk, we can say that milk cannot be produced without utilizing these three basic components.
Solution and Techs to increase the Milk Yield:
- Remove the stress:
This may be seems like a difficult task but it is not, as mentioned above the basic reasons of stress. By removing the exact cause we can prevent the animal from all kind of sources which can reduce the milk production. Suppose it’s a environmental stress than provide the animal with a normal and suitable temperature in which animal would feel much better, if it’s harsh summer than provide some cooling effects and if its harsh cold than provide some heating techs. Suppose the cause is feed or food related than change the company of feed, you can start by reducing the quantity of feed. If by reducing the quantity of specific feed animal feels better than stop that feed and tries some other company if it doesn’t affect the production role than no need to change the feed. Suppose it’s a clinical stress like you have given some specific antibiotics or some specific medication to prevent any disease condition than these drugs could be a cause of stress and can reduce the milk production for example Gentamicin may reduce the milk production if use with Amoxcillin. So If you found that this stress is due to some medications than you can stop these drugs and ultimately it will increase the milk production.
- Worms and Parasites:
As discussed above that these worms and parasites could also be responsible for reducing the milk production. So once it is detected that there is worm’s presence than you can easily get rid of it by using some specific de-wormers. Below is the list best de-wormers according to their results i.e. a) is best quality and b) is somehow less good. Following is the list:
- Oxyclozanide combinations (Nelzan Plus)
By using above de-wormers you can easily get relief from the worm’s issue of that animal. Ultimately this will increase the milk production and also it will improve the health of animal.
- Minerals, Vitamins and Glucose Deficiency:
This is also the most easiest way to reach maximum production, and as you all know that its also not difficult to apply. Just provide the animal with good source of glucose and after that see the results. For other deficiencies you can use the mineral mixture, I would strongly recommend you that always use the mineral mixture which also include at least 8 to 10 vitamins in it. This will improve the milk production. Below is the list of best mineral mixtures which I have been using since last six years in Pakistan:
- Bovimix Extra
- White Gold
- Vito Mineral T
- LS Minerals
- Di Calcium Phosphate
Above are the good sources of minerals and vitamins. For the beef and mutton production I will discuss in a separate topic, as it’s a detailed topic. So by using these mixtures you can easily increase the milk production.
Below is the cumulative formula which we can use in all animals if they are in normal condition.
- First of remove any stressful factor if present in your animal.
- After this use a good de-wormer to clean up the entire body of animal like GIT and Blood.
- Apply and give mineral mixture therapy to all animals as mentioned above.
So simply by using these three steps you can easily increase the milk production in all kind of dairy animals. As we know that only milk production is the only thing which every farmer need and if we help out him in this condition than this would be a great gift for a farmer.
Note: In any disease condition you can use the step 1 and 3 but the step 2 is highly recommended in those conditions only when there is a confirm presence of worms detected by Vet or owner.
I hope this article will help you a lot; I will be waiting for your feedback and precious suggestion. I would also request you to suggest me a topic on which you want me to write about.